Construction of the Temple of Heaven began in 1420 AD. It was primarily used by the Emperors of the Ming and Qing Dynasties which ruled China from 1368 AD until the recent formation of the Republic of China. The Emperors of China were regarded as the "Sons of Heaven" who conducted heavenly matters on earth. Here the Emperors would carry out annual ceremonies and pray for good harvest on behalf of the Chinese people. These ceremonies played a huge part in creating the China that exists today.